Vaccination has greatly diminished death, illness and suffering in the world. But no other medical technology has been so dogged with controversy. The book chronicles the development of the key lifesaving vaccines since the 18th century. It tells the stories of great scientists and their discoveries, of the protests and pain along the stumbling path of progress. This is the first book to tell the whole story of vaccination for a general audience. In light of controversies about flu vaccine and autism, it will be of particular interest to parents, pediatricians, public health workers and anyone fascinated by medical history. Read More>>

Also Available: Table of Contents and Index

Arthur Allen is a Washington DC-based journalist who has written on vaccine issues in The New York Times Magazine, the Washington Post Magazine, The New Republic, Atlantic Monthly, Salon and Slate.


Vaers and Veritas

The conservative legal group Judicial Watch last week issued a news release announcing that it had uncovered three deaths linked to the human papilloma virus vaccine (HPV), which has been the subject of furious debate around the country as states decide whether to require 6th grade girls to be vaccinated before admitting them to school. The release, in which Judicial Watch claimed that its perusal of adverse event reports from the vaccine also turned up cases of autoimmune disease and fetal damage in vaccinated pregnant women, produced a minor media splash, with articles in the Wall Street Journal and the Washington Times. The story didn’t get play in most other outlets, probably for this simple reason: It’s bullshit.
Like the social conservatives whose ideological affinity presumably drew Judicial Watch into the issue, I believe that making HPV vaccination mandatory is a mistake, at least at this time. Though it looks like a good vaccine, the HPV shot needs to have wider use before we are positive that it’s truly safe and an effective way to prevent cervical cancer. In a strange way, this episode illustrates one of the reasons that the time is not ripe for compulsory use. But Judicial Watch got it completely wrong in its analysis of 1,637 consecutive reports from the Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS). VAERS, a database of post-vaccination medical events that is analyzed by doctors at the FDA and the CDC, was set up in the late 1980s to serve as an early warning system for vaccine safety issues. It has turned up a few problems, most notably the 1998 association of intussusception, a painful and occasionally fatal infantile bowel problem, with Rotashield vaccine, which was promptly withdrawn by Wyeth. For the most part, VAERS data are a combination of common, low-significance events, like transient blackouts, vomiting, rashes and the like, which accompany the use of almost any vaccine or drug. Gardasil, Merck’s HPV vaccine, is produced in yeast, so a certain percentage of people will suffer allergic reactions to it. And then there are more serious events that may or may not have anything to do with the vaccine. The CDC/FDA analysts are looking for unusual patterns, especially those that make biological sense. For example, Rotashield was a live oral vaccine against a GI-tract infection, rotavirus. It made sense that it might cause intusussception, so the government scientists were on the lookout. But anyone can report anything to VAERS—a patient, a doctor, a drug company. And they do. For example, the guardians of an 18-year-old girl reported to VAERS that she had suffered a psychotic episode a week after getting the shot. Among other symptoms, the girl went around telling people that Gardasil was “poison coursing through my body.” This doesn’t sound like an actual vaccine reaction, or at least not one you can blame on the vaccine. More to the point, the three deaths reported to VAERS after HPV were heart attacks that followed administration of the vaccine by three hours, a week and two weeks, respectively. It’s a good thing that they were reported to VAERS. We need to know if people are dying after vaccination. But when people die following a vaccination, it isn’t necessarily the vaccination that caused it, a fact that generations of vaccine critics have failed to clearly see as they bungle their interpretations of VAERS data. When the CDC, responding to the three death reports, interviewed doctors and examined the charts, they found that one, a case of myocarditis, was caused by influenza virus. The other two were blood clots in adolescents taking birth control pills. Birth control pills are known to raise the risk of blood clots. “These deaths are tragic but appear to have causes unrelated to vaccination,” says Dr. John Iskander, co-director of the Immunization Safety Office at the CDC. Judicial Watch also claimed to have found 18 cases of birth defects and miscarriages among the reports. I counted 11 pregnancy-related adverse events, including 6 miscarriages that occurred between a few hours and four months after the shot, two unrelated abortions, two abortions following abnormal ultrasounds, and another report of an abnormal ultrasound with no indication of what was done about it (a lot of the VAERS reports are quite sketchy and confusing). Eleven problem pregnancies is certainly fewer than would expect in any group of 3 million teen-agers and women (30 percent of first-trimester pregnancies miscarry, and 3 percent of babies have at least minor birth defects). And since even live vaccines like varicella are known not to cause birth defects, Iskander points out, it seems unlikely that an inactivated, subunit vaccine like HPV would do so. Most seriously, the VAERS reports include 10 or 15 instances of Guillain Barre Syndrome or similar instances of muscle paralysis or weakness. There have been some credible case reports linking GBS and vaccines against flu, tetanus and meningitis, the latter of which is often administered to teen-agers concurrently with Gardasil. On the other hand, there may be no connection to the vaccines. About 1 or 2 in 100,000 adolescents will experience Guillain Barre Syndrome every year, so if 3 million vaccinations have been given, you’d expect this many cases to occur by chance. One other thing that’s notable as you go through the reports (I went through all 1,637 of them) is the number of women who faint after vaccination. Apparently, fainting isn’t at all unusual with vaccination or doctors’ visits in general. This is especially true when people line up for shots at school or in the military. One person faints and then it spreads. This is more dangerous than it sounds, though—unattended fainters can suffer brain damage when they hit their heads on hard surfaces. For this reason pediatricians are supposed to keep teen-aged and adult patients in the office for 15 minutes before they walk or get into their cars. The HPV database includes a handful of faints that led to head injury.


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When I was in the army, the medic using the airgun for vaccinations was not too adpet. Instead of a nice neat shot, he sliced my arm and I began bleeding. The guy behind me passed out.

I wonder if this qualitifes as a VAERS event? :)

Awesome Mom

I would like to use this for the next edition of Pediatric Grand Rounds. Please email me awesome_mom2061 AT yahoo DOT com if I have your permission to use it. Thanks!


I remember having the same response when I saw the reports about pregnancy complications after HPV vaccination. "Because pregnancies always go totally smoothly as long as you don't get vaccinated against HPV." Yeah.

frederick varricchio

Sure anybody can report anything and that is what happens. Furthermore reporting is encouraged. Then comes the interpretation. Everything that is reported is not true. Can that be said more clearly.

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